Interraction Of Culture

Interraction Of Culture

I.Task

1. Assimilation is a process of mixed different cultures that produce the new cultures and their characteriststic.

2. Because in United States, the societies are easy to accept various cultures which enter their country. They also easy to gathering and creating some new cultures.

3. In the interraction of cultures, we can produce and make the assimilation for our cultures.

 

II. Essays Of Writting

1.THE CHINESE PEOPLE (Assimilation In Indonesia)

In every part of Indonesia especially in cities always presence the Chinese. But most Indonesian do not know them well. There are actually 4 groups of Chinese who have settled in Indonesia. These 4 groups are based on their language and origin in China. Chinese migration into Indonesia was happened between 16th to 19th century.

  1. Hokkien people, was coming from Fukien Province as area very important for the history of Chinese trade in the south. They have a character that they are very diligent, patient, and delicate. They are very good in trading. So most of them are economically success. Their migration into Indonesia reached a wide area in east Indonesia, central Java, East Java, and west Sumatra.
  2. Teo-Chiu and Hakka (Khek) people from southern part of China in hinterland of Swatow of eastern Kwantung Province. The Teo-Chiu and Hakka people was emplyed in the minings, such as East Sumatera, Bangka island, and Biliton.
  3. Kanton people ( Kwong Fu ), was the resident of southern part of Kwantung province. At the beginning they were interested by Indonesian mining industry, and they come with skill. They are the people who own shops, and blacksmiths. They are not as many as Hakka and Teo-Chiu.

For Indonesian the 4 groups are not important, as they are much more known as:

  1. Indonesian – Chinese or ” Peranakan”
  2. Original Chinese  or “Totok”

This classification is much based on the degree of their assimilation and acculturation with the local people and culture. Most Hokkien who migrated first to Indonesia has experienced deep assimilation and acculturation, even their physical characters are almost the same as local people due to the marriage exchange. They mostly forget their language, and speak local language and Indonesian.

Group of migration that live in west Java, Sumatea West Kalimantan there are still Totok with Chinese villages, speak their own language and continiue their culture in Indonesia.

During Dutch colonization with the different treatment in social status and affairs, they did not want to be classified as the local. This is again grown by the China Nationalist propaganda arises during 20th century. This propadanda of re-orientating their nation. This is given an advantage again with China system of nationality of father’s blood lineage or nationality based on blood relation called ius sanguinis. This policy before 1955 had caused double nationality. The most important from this impact is the growing awareness of the Great China family or in simple a process of totonized.

In general most Chinese in Indonesia work in trade, especially the Hokkien. In West Java and West Sumatera they are farmers. In Bagan Siapi-api ( Riau ) the Hokkien are fishermen. The Hakka in Sumatera work as labor in minings, while in West Kalimantan they are farmers. The Teo-Chiu work as farmers but many also labor in farm estates in East Sumatera.

The trade of Chinese in Indonesia is based on family’s ownership and management. Mostly small size and do not need worker from outside. If their business growing, they open new branch which is given to their brother, child or any family member to manage, except if they build limited corporation do they works with other Chinese clan or even other ethnic that they consider profitable.

It was a paradigm that the Totok consider the Peranakan is lower in class due to their mixed blood, while the Peranakan consider the Totok is lower in class as they are all coming to Indonesia as labor. During Dutch colonization the Chinese as if they were an autonomous society and was permitted to rebuild their own culture in Indonesia, and just after the ethnic getting strong the Dutch realized the situation and closed all education belong the the exclusive Chinese and their organization. During Japan control on Dutch East India, all western schools were closed, and again Chinese school rebuilt. After the independence of Indonesia all educational facility and system were reorganized and adjusted under the basic constitution of Indonesia, that the Educational Facility is for all, and no special treatment be exist. Starting from 1957 all Indonesian must follow the rules no exception of any ethnic.

Kinship system of Chinese in Indonesia is almost the same as main ethnic cultures in Indonesia such as marriage suggestion and interdiction. The only different is their family unit is much bigger ( big virilocal ). The status of women in the past was low and become the subject of her husband, brothers, and their parent in law. A man pursue to have boy, and as long as the boy has not yet born, the husband can take more women.

In Indonesia the Chinese follow Buddhist, Kung Fu-tse, Christian and Islam, although in Great Chine the population are Buddhist. The strong belief of Chinese is their love to the ancestors, although they are already passed this world, their body is cremated, and the ash is kept at home, in a ceramic vas. They also celebrate the Chinese New Year called ” Imlek” in Indonesia, while in Great China it is called ” Summer Feast “, and in Bali is called ” Chinese Galungan”

Commenntary : In indonesia, there are many cultures and ethnics that can be mixed. Even the cultures in indonesia can also mixed with other nations, China, for the example. The mixed cultures are able to increase our culture’s potential and various of our cultures. The mixed cultures are also influence the form of their cultures, such as : Religion, Ceremony, customs, etc. This is one way to enrich the cultures in both countries.

 

2.

Cultural Assimilation in the United States – The Melting Pot

What are our expectations for assimilation in the United States?

Educators claim that their top priority is to treat all children like human beings, regardless of ethnic identity, cultural background, or economic status. This is a paradox. A person’s humanity cannot be isolated or divorced from his or her culture and ethnicity.

Until the past few decades schools presented a monocultural, and monochromatic, view of the United States. It ignored minorities such as African Americans and Asians, but also treated Europeans as if they were all of one culture. This was often done with the best of intentions.

If America was the great “melting pot” then the ideal would be for everyone to be part of that pot. In the sixties and seventies with the rise of the civil rights movements and women’s movement that view of America changed. Textbooks no longer proffered the melting pot as the goal for all Americans. Instead the “salad bowl” was set forth as a new metaphor. All members of the society bring their unique gifts and culture to the bowl. Together they blend together to create the unique flavor that is America.

The salad bowl approach caused a dilemma throughout the educational system. If we abandon how various disciplines have been taught then how do we teach? One of the primary and persistent ideals of multicultural education in school programs is to correct what advocates call “sins of omission and commission.” First, we must provide students with information about history and contributions of ethnic groups traditionally excluded from instructional materials. We must also replace distorted and biased images of those groups that were included in the curricula with more accurate and significant information. This is where many of the arguments about multicultural education come into play.

Melting Pot or Salad Bowl?

  • The population of the United States is made up of a variety of different ethnic groups, races, nationalities, religions, etc.
  • The process, by which these many groups have been made a common cultural life with common shared values, is called assimilation.
  • Some have described the U.S. as the “melting pot” where various races and ethnic groups have been combined into one culture.
  • Others describe the U.S. as a “salad bowl” where the various groups have remained somewhat distinct and different from one another, creating a richly diverse country.
  • Since 1776, an enormous amount of racial and ethnic assimilation has taken place in the U.S. yet some groups still feel a strong sense of separateness from the culture as a whole.
  • Many of these groups are really bicultural. Bicultural means that they consider themselves Americans but they also wish to retain the language and customs of their original culture.
  • Before the settlers arrived from Europe in the early 1600s, the people of the Hispanic origin were on the North American continent before them
  • In Florida and in the South West, the Spanish and Latin American settlements established centuries before the 13 colonies joined together to form the U.S. in the late 1700s.
  • Because of their long history and influx of newcomers, the Hispanics and Latinos have a special pride in maintaining their cultural traditions and the Spanish language.
  • Over the years, whites from different national and religious backgrounds have gradually assimilated into the larger American culture, with exceptions of course.
  • For example, American Jews are one group of whites that have retained a strong sense of separateness from the larger culture.
  • This may be a result of the long history of persecution in the Christian countries in Europe, the weaker forms of discrimination and anti-Jewish feeling that exist in the U.S., and their own strong feeling of ethnic pride.
  • Along with the sense of separateness, American Jews have a strong sense of being part of the larger American culture in which they have achieved competitive success in almost every field.

Commentary : United States is the country that easy to accept and respect other cultures which come to this country. So that United States has various kinds of cultures. The society of United States will apply every cultures which enter this country. Therefore, United States is called “Melting Pot”. Nowdays, cultures in United States  have much potency and customs.

 

~ oleh adlanpribadi pada Oktober 31, 2012.

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